Name of Organization   Hizb ul-Mujahideen (HuM)

 

Formation  

The outfit was formed on September 15, 1989 at district Budgam in Indian Administered Jammu and Kashmir [1]. HuM is believed to be the successor of Ansar ul-Islam formed in the 1980s [2]. According to available information the group was originally called Al-Badr, but the name was later changed [3]. The outfit was formed by the unification of approximately 12 militant groups. The group is believed to be the militant wing Jamaat-e Islami in Pakistan and Kashmir [4].  

 

Leadership   Master Ahsan Dar

A former school teacher, Master Ahsan Dar founded the Hizb-ul Mujahideen in 1989. After developing differences with the leadership, Dar left the group and founded a little known Muslim Mujahideen in 1992 [5]. He was first arrested in December 1993 [6] and his latest arrest was in January, 2009 after which was finally released in late 2012 [7].
 

Syed Salahuddin

Syed Mohammed Yusuf Shah a.k.a Syed Salahuddin was an unsuccessful politician in Indian Administered Jammu and Kashmir, who had thrice contested in elections under the banner of Jamaat-e Islami [8]. After the formation of Hizb ul-Mujahideen, he was appointed the group’s patron in 1990 [9]. He was elevated to the rank of supreme commander and has been involved in cleansing any opposition within the organization and the movement within Kashmir [10]. He is currently also the chairman of Muttahida Jihad Council. [12]
 

Hilal Ahmed Mir

Hilal a.k.a Nasir ul-Islam had earlier formed Ansar ul-Islam in 1980s, which converted the movement from secular to Islamic militancy. He was proponent of a combined platform for Kashmiri militants. He eventually merged his group with Hizb-ul Mujahideen in 1989. He was however opposed to the domination of Jamaat-e Islami in the Kashmir movement [13]. In 1990 Hilal Ahmed Mir was appointed as chief of Hizb-ul Mujahideen. However, due to difference in the HuM cadres Hilal split from the organization [14]. He formed the splinter group of Jamiat ul-Mujahideen in June 1991 [15] and was later killed in 1993 [16].

 

School of Thought  

Sunni:

The Sunnis refrain from giving exalted status to any person other than the prophets. There is also the belief that leader or imam should be selected with consensus. The sect is considered to be more flexible in allowing any person to serve as a prayer leader or preacher. Within the Sunni sect, there are four schools of jurisprudence. These include Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi and Hanbali schools of thought [17].

The group has its own extremist version of the ideology promoting the utilization of violence to achieve their goals.

Kashmiri Nationalists:
The outfit believes in liberation of Jammu and Kashmir from the Indian state and accession to Pakistan. [18]

 

Structure of the Organization  

The organization claimed strength of 10,000 fighters in the early years, while now it is believed to be in a few hundreds [19]. The outfit is based in Muzaffarabad, capital of Pakistan Administered Kashmir, headed by Syed Salahuddin. It consists of five divisions in Indian Administered Kashmir namely central division for Srinagar, northern division for Kupwara-Bandipora-Baramulla, southern division for Anantnag and Pulwama districts, Chenab division for Doda district and Gool in the Udhampur district and Pir Panjal Division for the Rajouri and Poonch districts. It has a news agency by the name of Kashmir Press International (KPI) and women’s wing by the name of Banat ul-Islam [20]. Its ranks consist of mainly Kashmiri leadership [21]. The supreme advisory council is responsible for the decision making in the organization. [22]

 

Financial Resources  

The outfit acquires funding through donations and extortions from communities in their areas of influence. [23]
 

Status  

Proscribed by the Indian government under Section 35 of Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 [24] and Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 [25]. The outfit was further banned by the European Union in 2005. [26]

 

Recruitment tools & demographics  

In previous years the group has been known to have recruited from Kashmir and Pakistan, but it is now believed that it has also launched recruitments within India. [27]
 

Ideology  

HuM was formed with the objective of securing independence for the people of Indian Administered Kashmir and accession to Pakistan, through violence aimed at the state. [28]

 

Areas of Operation  

The organization carries out activities in Indian Administered Kashmir. The recruitment and training is conducted in Pakistan and Indian Administered Kashmir. The organization also carried out trainings in Afghanistan with Hizb-e Islami (Gulbuddin Hekmatyar). [29]
 

Linkages  

The HuM has established links with Jamaat-e Islami, Hizb-e Islami (Gulbuddin Hekmatyar) and United Jihad Council. [30]

Tools   Print Media:

The outfit utilizes magazines by the name of “Zarb-e Mujahid” [31] , Jihad-e Kashmir [32] and circulars [33] to disseminate their message.

    Audio / Video:
There are songs [33] and videos [34] glorifying the activities of the organization.

Social Media:
N/A
 
 

web site   The organization is maintaining a website to broaden its outreach online.
http://hizbulmujahideen.webs.com/
 
Service Delivery  

HuM undertook relief efforts in the aftermath of October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan and Indian Administered Kashmir. The outfit also has launched “Save the forest” campaign in Doda, Indian Administered Kashmir. [36]

Name Variations  

The group is also known as Hizb ul-Mujahideen Pir Panjal Regiment [37], Al-Jihad, Party of Freedom Fighters, Party of Holy Warriors, Tehreek-e Kuddam ud-Din and Tehrik ul-Furqaan. [38]
 

 

Who they are

HuM has the objective of securing independence for the people of Indian Administered Kashmir and accession to Pakistan, through violence aimed at the state [39]. The organization carries out activities in Indian Administered Kashmir. The recruitment and training is conducted in Pakistan and Indian Administered Kashmir. The outfit is based in Muzaffarabad, capital of Pakistan Administered Kashmir, headed by Syed Salahuddin. It consists of five divisions in Indian Administered Kashmir namely central division for Srinagar, northern division for Kupwara-Bandipora-Baramulla, southern division for Anantnag and Pulwama districts, Chenab division for Doda district and Gool in the Udhampur district and Pir Panjal Division for the Rajouri and Poonch districts. It has a news agency by the name of Kashmir Press International (KPI) and women’s wing by the name of Banat ul-Islam. Its ranks consist of mainly Kashmiri leadership [40]. The supreme advisory council is responsible for the decision making in the organization. The organization is also considered as the armed wing of Jamaat-e Islami [41]. The HuM has established links with Jamaat-e Islami, Hizb-e Islami (Gulbuddin Hekmatyar) and United Jihad Council [42].

History

The outfit was formed on September 15, 1989 at district Budgam in Indian Administered Jammu and Kashmir [43]. HuM is believed to be the successor of Ansar ul-Islam formed in the 1980s [44]. According to available information the group was originally called Al-Badr, but the name was later changed [45]. The organization claimed strength of 10,000 fighters in the early years, while now it is believed to be in a few hundreds [46]. The outfit was formed by the unification of approximately 12 militant groups [47]. After the formation of Hizb ul-Mujahideen, he was appointed the group’s patron in 1990 [48]. Syed Salahuddin was elevated to the rank of supreme commander and has been involved in cleansing any opposition within the organization and the movement within Kashmir [49]. The organization became the member of United Jihad Council, consisting of Kashmiri militant organization; in 1994 [50]. In August 2000, the Indian government entered into talks with the group, after it offered ceasefire in July 2000. However, the talks broke down on August 08, 2000 after the ceasefire was withdrawn by HuM [51]. The group has been proscribed by the Indian government under Section 35 of Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 [52] and Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 [53]. The outfit was further banned by the European Union in 2005 [54].

Organization's Message

HuM has the objective of securing independence for the people of Indian Administered Kashmir and accession to Pakistan, through violence aimed at the state [55]. The group has its own extremist version of Islamic Sunni ideology promoting the utilization of violence to achieve their goals [56].

 

Target Audience

The organization is believed to have considerable support in the Indian Administered Kashmir including Doda, Rajouri, Poonch districts and Udhampur district in Jammu [57]. HuM concentrates its activities to acquire support and remove opposition to its views in Indian and Pakistani Administered Kashmir, while it is also reported to have carried out recruitment within Pakistan and India [58].

Tools

As per available information the group utilizes magazines, circulars and a website to gain outreach among the community.
• Offline
Magazines
According to available information, they also publish magazine by the name of “Zarb-e Mujahid” which was not found online.
Circulars
The group utilizes circulars to disseminate warnings and other messages among the community.

Download complete details of tools used by Hizb-ul-Mujahadeen here

 
 

Splinter Groups

Jamiat ul-Mujahideen:
Hilal Ahmed Mir developed differences with Master Ahsan Dar and (chief of Hizb ul-Mujahideen), over the growing influence of Jamaat-e Islami. He later split from the group to form Jamiat ul-Mujahideen in June 1991. After the death of Hilal, the group was led by by Ghulam Rasool Shah (alias General Abdullah/Mohammad Ramzan Sofi), while other leaders included Sheikh Abdul Basit and Mohammed Salah. The group has a hardline stance on Kashmir issue and does not support negotiations with the Indian government. The outfit also is believed to be collaborating and cooperating with Lashkar-e Taiba

Syed Salahuddin, Supreme Commander HuM

.
 

 

References:

[1] Kashmir Life. (2012). Hizb Founder Ahsan Dar Released, Ready To Join Politics. December 26, 2012. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.kashmirlife.net/hizb-founder-ahsan-dar-released-ready-to-join-politics/.

[2] Hoffmann, K., Kodera, J., Francois, P. L., Nicas, C. & Reed, J. (2011). Sunni Militancy in India: An Analytical Atlas. Stanford IPS/MPP Practicum Project. March 18, 2011.

[3] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). Hizbul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=52.

[4] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[5] Kashmir Life. (2012). Hizb Founder Ahsan Dar Released, Ready To Join Politics. December 26, 2012. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.kashmirlife.net/hizb-founder-ahsan-dar-released-ready-to-join-politics/.

[6] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[7] Kashmir Life. (2012). Hizb Founder Ahsan Dar Released, Ready To Join Politics. December 26, 2012. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.kashmirlife.net/hizb-founder-ahsan-dar-released-ready-to-join-politics/.

[8] Kashmir Herald. (2002). Syed Salahuddin. Volume 1, No. 9 - February 2002. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.kashmirherald.com/profiles/sallahuddin.html.

[9] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[10] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[12] Naqash, T. (2013). ‘Jihad can resolve Kashmir issue’. Dawn. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://x.dawn.com/2013/01/06/jihad-can-resolve-kashmir-issue/.

[13] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[14] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[15] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[16] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[17] Blanchard C. M. (2009). Shia Islam: Development and Basic Tenets. Shia Practices and Core Beliefs. January 28, 2009. Congressional Research Service (CRS). Retrieved on: December 27, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21745.pdf.

[18] AlJazeera. (2012). Profiles: Armed groups. April 03, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/kashmirtheforgottenconflict/2011/07/2011731161726482729.html.

[19] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[20] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[21] BBC. (2012). Who are the Kashmir militants? August 01, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-18738906.

[22] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt of India. Banned Organizations. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://mha.nic.in/uniquepage.asp?id_pk=292.

[25] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[26] Government of United Kingdom. (2013). Consolidated List of Financial Sanctions Targets in the UK. April 10, 2013. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/246598/terrorism.pdf.

[27] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[28] AlJazeera. (2012). Profiles: Armed groups. April 03, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/kashmirtheforgottenconflict/2011/07/2011731161726482729.html.

[29] BBC. (2012). Who are the Kashmir militants? August 01, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-18738906.

[30] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[31] Rana, M. A. (2008). Jihadi Print Media in Pakistan: An Overview. Pak Institute for Peace Studies (PIPS). October, 2008.

[32] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[33] Sundarji, P. R. (2012). The Shallow Graves Of Lot. Outlook. Retrieved on: October 04, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?282493.

[34] 4shared.com. hizbul mujahideen ooncha ho.mp3. Retrieved on: October 04, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.4shared.com/mp3/dlXXPu6f/hizbul_mujahideen_ooncha_ho.htm.

[35] Hizbul Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 04, 2013. Retrieved from: http://hizbulmujahideen.webs.com/apps/videos/channels/show/1286384-hizbmedia-com.

[36] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[37] Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt of India. Banned Organizations. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://mha.nic.in/uniquepage.asp?id_pk=292.

[38] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[39] AlJazeera. (2012). Profiles: Armed groups. April 03, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/kashmirtheforgottenconflict/2011/07/2011731161726482729.html.

[40] BBC. (2012). Who are the Kashmir militants? August 01, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-18738906.

[41] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[42] BBC. (2012). Who are the Kashmir militants? August 01, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-18738906.

[43] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[44] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).

[45] Kashmir Life. (2012). Hizb Founder Ahsan Dar Released, Ready To Join Politics. December 26, 2012. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.kashmirlife.net/hizb-founder-ahsan-dar-released-ready-to-join-politics/.

[46] Hoffmann, K., Kodera, J., Francois, P. L., Nicas, C. & Reed, J. (2011). Sunni Militancy in India: An Analytical Atlas. Stanford IPS/MPP Practicum Project. March 18, 2011.

[47] National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). Hizbul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/data_collections/tops/terrorist_organization_profile.asp?id=52.

[48] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[49] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[50] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[51] Jamal, A. (2010). A Guide to Militant Groups in Kashmir. Terrorism Monitor. The James Town Foundation. Volume VIII, Issue 5, February 4, 2010. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.jamestown.org/uploads/media/TM_008_5_01.pdf.

[52] Federation of American Scientists (FAS). (1999). United Jihad Council/Muttahida Jihad Council [MJC]. October 25, 1999. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/mjc.htm.

[53] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[54] Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt of India. Banned Organizations. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://mha.nic.in/uniquepage.asp?id_pk=292.

[55] South Asia Terrorism Portal (SATP). (2013). Hizb-ul-Mujahideen. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/jandk/terrorist_outfits/hizbul_mujahideen.htm.

[56] Government of United Kingdom. (2013). Consolidated List of Financial Sanctions Targets in the UK. April 10, 2013. Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/246598/terrorism.pdf.

[57] AlJazeera. (2012). Profiles: Armed groups. April 03, 2012. Retrieved on: October 08, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/kashmirtheforgottenconflict/2011/07/2011731161726482729.html.

[58] Institute for the Study of Violent Groups (ISVG). Hizb-ul Mujahideen (HM). Retrieved on: October 07, 2013. Retrieved on: http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Hizb-ul_Mujahideen_(HM).