Name of Organization   TEHREEK-E-NIFAZ-E-SHARIAT-E-MUHAMMADI(TNSM)

 

Formation  

Established-1994

Base - Malakand Dir

Aim- To enforce Sharia law through Judicial reforms in the Malakand Division of Pakistan, a region including Swat valley [1]. They are against the governmentís policies. According to TNSM local tribal leaders and other religious-political parties in Pakistan are following western democracy. TNSM wants to impose Islamic judicial system in Pakistan.
 

 

Leadership   Founder-Sufi Muhammad 


Sufi Muhammad, Founder TNSM

He belongs to Maidan a small town of lower Dir.

1980s-He was an active member of Jamaat-e-Islami in 1980ís, which he quit in 1992. He inspired thousands of people to fight in Afghanistan.

1994-2009-He remained the leader of TNSM, until his incarceration.

2009-Maulana Fazl Ullah became leader of TNSM in 2009 when Sufi Muhammad was imprisoned after the organization was declared banned. Sufi Muhammad is the father-in-law of Mulana Fazlullah who was earlier the member of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government and TNSM have agreed on the implementation of Sharia law in Malakand, a region which covers one third of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa including Swat valley.

Current leader - Maulana Fazullah is the current leader of TNSM, he is also known as Mullah radio or Mullah FM. He used illegal radio broadcast to spread the organizationís message.
In Nov 2013 after the death of Hakim Ullah Mehsud he was elected as the chief of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan.

Prominent leaders-Maulana Faqir Mohammed and Maulana Liaqaut were prominent leaders of TNSM.
 

School of Thought   Sunni. They want to impose Sharia law.

The Tehrik-e Nefaz-e Shariat-e Mohammadi (TNSM) is a Sunni terrorist group that is active in the Tribal areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Organizationís ideology is similar to Taliban, as they want to impose Sharia law [2]

 

Structure of the Organization  

As per Pakistan Journal of History and Culture the organization had strength of around 10000 personnel in 2001. According to New York Times in 2004 their strength was about 4000 [3].

 

Financial Resources  

They have multiple financial resources including:
 Maulana Fazl Ullahís money gathered from mosques and madrassahs in local villages.
 They get the support of local people through Maulanaís illegal radio broadcast.
 It is reported that they are also involved in some criminal venture such as smuggling and trafficking.
 It had been reported that before 2009, he controlled Swat Valleyís emerald mines and was earning about a third of the profits from these mines.
 In the past, TNSM benefitted from Saudi and Gulf State support. They are also involved in timber business without any restriction from the government.
 

 

Status  

Proscribed

The outfit was proscribed by the Pakistani government on January 12, 2002.  

 

Recruitment tools & demographics  

They target their audience through:
 Illegal radio broadcasts,
 Recruitment bases and
 Through like-minded mosques and other religious institutions.
 With the collaboration of Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) the organization expanded its activities.
 

 

Ideology  

Enforce Sharia law

The organizationís aim was to enforce Sharia law through Judicial reforms in the Malakand Division of Pakistan, a region including Swat valley. According to their leader, whoever opposes obligations of Sharia is wajib-ul-qatl (worthy of death). They want to enforce Islamic judicial system. TNSM is against all religio-political parties.

 

Areas of Operation  

 Swat Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,
 Bajaur,
 Malakand Agency and
 Darail Tangeer Agency in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are considered the stronghold of TNSM. 

 

Linkages  

TNSMís ideology is aligned with Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP). It is reported that in Malakand division and tribal areas TNSM and Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) are in conflict.

Affiliated-They are strongly affiliated with Afghan Taliban leader, Mullah Omar. Mullah Fazl Ullah is son-in-law of Sufi Muhammad. TNSM actively fought together with the Taliban against the US and Northern Alliance forces in Afghanistan.
 

Tools   Unknown 
    Audio / Video:
Unknown 

Social Media:
Unknown 
Facebook:
Unknown 
 
 

web site   Not Available
Name Variations   Following are the different name variations of TNSM:

 Black Turbans;
 Movement for the Enforcement of Islamic Law;
 Movement for the Enforcement of Mohammadís Laws;
 Tanzeem-e Nifaz-e Shariat-e Mohammadi;
 Tehreek-e Nafaz-e Shariat-e Mohammadi;
 Tehrik Nifaz-e Shariat Mohammadi andTNSM. 
 

Who they are

Tribal Sunni Militant outfit.
Tehrik-e Nifaz-e Shariat-e Muhammadi is a tribal Sunni militant outfit which announced to enforce Sharia in Malakand region and Bajaur Agency. This was recognized under ď Nizam-e-Adal RegulationĒ 2009. The KPK govrnment agreed with TNSM for enforcment of Shariat-i Muhammadi in accordance with Quran, Sunnah, Ijma and Qias. TNSM signed a peace treaty with the government of KPK but unfortunately did not abide by it resulting in a military operation and the arrest of Sufi Muhammad. Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan agreed with TNSM with regarding this agrement
[4].

History

TNSM is a movement to enforce Islamic sharia in Malakand.
1989-This demand was put by a Pro-Taliban cleric Sufi Muhammad in 1989 under the umbrella of Tehrik-e Nifaz-e Shariat-e Muhammadi (TNSM). It was established when Sufi Muhammad separated from Jamat-e Islami in 1998, TNSM reached peak during 1990s, then in 1994 after the 'Tor Patkai' i.e. black turban movement. TNSMís demands were accepted in December, 1994. As a result Nizam-e Shariat Regulation was enforced in the Malakand division.
Later in 1999 it was enforced in Swat and the rest of Malakand division and Kohistan after some amendments in Nazam e Shariat Audience 1999. TNSM has strong linkages with Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan. Their members fought with US forces in Afghanistan
[5].
Sufi Muhammadís son in law, Fazl Ullah (AKA Mullah Radio) emerged as a militant leader in Swat. From an illegal FM radio station he preached anti government Islamic revolution.
Military operation-In 2007 Pakistan military launched operation to retake Swat. During the same year Fazl Ullah merged TNSM with Baitullah Mehsud (TTP)
[6].

Organization's Message

The organizationís aim is to establish Sharia.
They are against democracy and pluralism
[7]. TNSM is against all religio-political parties according to them these parties are following the western democracy. They want to enforce Islamic Sharia and Islamic judicial system.

Target Audience

Their target audience includes people from:
 Swat,
 Malakand agency,
 Bajuar agency and
 Some parts of Kohistan.

Tools

TNSM established 3 radio stations near Bajuar. Their leaders use illegal radio broadcast for spreading religious and anti-government speeches and messages [8]
 

Splinter Groups

N/A

 

 

References:

[1] Stanford University. (2012). Mapping Militant Organizations: Tehreek Nifaz-e-Shariat Mohammadi. Date of access November 20, 2013. Accessed online. http://www.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/411.

[2]  Institute for the study of Violent Groups. Tehreek Nifaz-e-Shariat Mohammadi. Date of access November 20, 2013. Accessed online. http://vkb.isvg.org/Wiki/Groups/Tehrik-e-Nefaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi

[3] ibid

[4] South Asia Terrorism Portal. Pakistan. Terrorist groups. Tehreek-e Nafaz-e Shariat-e Muhammadi. Accessed online http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/terroristoutfits/TNSM.htm.Date of access 20 November 2013

[5] ibid

[6] Global Security. Military. Tehreek-e Nafaz-e Shariat-e Muhammadi. Accessed online http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/tnsm.htm.Date of access 20 November 2013

[7] ibid

[8] ibid