Name of Organization   TEHRIK-E-TALIBAN PAKISTAN (TTP)

 

Formation  

Established- Dec 2007
Since 2003, pro-Taliban groups of various names, capacities and forms engaged Pakistani security forces. In December 2007, TTP was established consisting of major and smaller pro-Taliban elements.
A total of 27 groups took part in formation of this outfit. Its focus is mainly against the Pakistani state; however it also provides support to the insurgency carried out in Afghanistan[1].
 

Leadership   Leader & First Commander-Baitullah Mehsud


Baitullah Mehsud at a Press Conference in May 2008


TTP was formed under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud in December 2007, who was the first commander of the organization. He was from the Broomikhel branch of the Shabikhel sub-tribe of Mehsuds.

1970s- He was born in the early 1970s at Landi Dhok village in Bannu. He received no formal education and attended only religious seminaries [2].

1980s-1990s-He took active part in fight against Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in the late 1980s and in the subsequent civil war in the 1990s [3]. He is also believed to have served under Jalal ud-Din Haqqani. He was also rumored to have been diagnosed with diabetes [4].

2004-He grabbed at the chance of filling the leadership vacuum left by the death of Nek Muhammad in 2004. He continued violent engagement with the Pakistani security forces and carried out various high profile terrorism activities [5].

Baitullah was also accused of ordering the assassination of former prime minister Benazir Bhutto, which he denied.

Aug, 2009-Baitullah was killed in a drone strike during August 2009 [6].

The organization absorbed various pro-Taliban groups and their leadership.
The prominent commanders in the cadres included:
1) Maulana Fazalullah

Nov 2013-Fazalullah took the reins of TTP, after the death of Hakimullah in a drone strike during November 2013 [7].
1975-Fazalullah originally named Fazal-e Hayat was born in 1975 at Mam Dheri or Imam Dheri, Swat.
2001- Fazalullah fought alongside his father-in-law Sufi Muhammad, founder of Tehrik-e Nifaz-e Shariat-e Muhammadi (TNSM); in Afghanistan during 2001. After their return, they both were jailed and the vacuum was filled by the son-in-law.
He earned the nickname Maulana Radio after he started giving sermons on illegal FM radio stations. He aligned his group with TTP and led an anti-state campaign in Swat.
2009-After a military campaign to evict the area from miscreants in 2009, Fazalullah went underground [8].
2) Hakimullah Mehsud-Commander of Khyber, Kurram & Orakzai



Hakimullah Mehsud


2007-Hakimullah is believed to be in his late 20s and was born at Jandola in South Waziristan. His real name is Zulfiqar, which he changed in 2007 after being appointed chief spokesman.
2009- He took over the leadership after the death of Baitullah Mehsud in 2009. He also has no formal schooling and he studied in religious seminary in Hangu. He later served in the war in Afghanistan.
After the formation of TTP he was appointed commander of Khyber, Kurram and Orakzai [9].
2009-NATO Troops attack-He is believed to be behind many high profile attacks on Pakistani and NATO troops, including the December 2009 attack on Forward Operating Base Chapman in Khost, Afghanistan and the failed bomb plot of Times Sqaure, New York [10].
Nov, 2013-Hakimullah was killed in a drone strike on 1st November, 2013 in North Waziristan [11].

3) Wali ur-Rehman Mehsud (Deputy to Baitullah)


Wali ur-Rehman Mehsud
 

1996-Wali ur-Rehman was around 40 years of age and his family lives in Miramshah. He attended a religious seminary in Faisalabad and later on in 1996 became a teacher at a seminary in South Waziristan.
2004-He was aligned with Jamiat-e Ulema-e Islam Fazal ur-Rehman group (JUI-F) till 2004. Wali undertook attacks on coalition forces in Afghanistan and also on Pakistani security forces. He was appointed deputy to Baitullah and also looked after the financial matters [12].
After the death of Baitullah, there were differences between Hakimullah and Wali ur-Rehman. Later on, Hakimullah became the head of TTP, while Wali was assigned command of South Waziristan. He later fled to North Waziristan after the military operation to cleanse South Waziristan from TTP [13].
May 2013-Wali ur-Rehman was killed in a drone strike during May 2013 in North Waziristan [14].

4) Hafiz Gul Bahadur (Supreme Commander of the Taliban)


Gul Bahadur is also the supreme commander of the Taliban in North Waziristan. He belongs to Madda Khel clan of the Uthmanzai Wazir and is believed to be a descendant of Mirza Ali Khan, who gained his fame for resistance against the British Indian government.
He is a resident of Lwara and received his religious education from a Deobandi seminary in Multan.
1980s-Gul Bahadur took active part in Afghanistan during the Soviet invasion in the 1980s and in the subsequent civil war.
2007-He was appointed deputy head of Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) in 2007, but distanced himself from the group after rifts emerged between the various factions.
Later, Hafiz Gul Bahadur, Baitullah Mahsud and Mullah Nazir formed the Shura Ittihad ul-Mujahideen for Afghanistan.
2006 & 2008-Gul Bahadur is also involved in peace deals with the Pakistani government in 2006 and 2008 [15]. He has also shown resistance against the anti-polio vaccination drive in North Waziristan [16].


5) Maulvi Nazir
1975-Nazir was born in 1975 at Angor Adda, Afghanistan.
He received his education through religious seminaries, including Jamia Dar ul-Uloom Waziristan, run by religious political party of Jamiat-e Ulema-e Islam-Fazal ur-Rehman (JUI-F). He also remained a worker for the JUI-F during these years.
1996-He joined the Taliban in 1996 and returned to Wana after the fall of Taliban. He remained an active supporter of Taliban and Al-Qaeda, while fighting alongside them against the Pakistani security forces.
2004-He was arrested in 2004 but was later released in the Shakai peace deal. Later on Nazir established his own outfit between 2006 and 2007 [17].
2007-He joined TTP in December 2007 and was a deputy commander [18]. He had a subsequent falling out with TTP and later also won Pakistani government and local support to evict foreign fighters from Wana, resultantly being embroiled in hostile engagements with rival factions. However, Nazir carried out operations in Afghanistan against the coalition troops.
Jan, 2013-He was killed in U.S. drone strike near Wana during January, 2013 [19].
 

School of Thought   Deobandi:
These are a significant group of Muslims present in the sub-continent, who adhere to the Sunni sect and follow the ideology of Imam Abu Hanifah. The school of thought is named after University of Deoband Dar ul-Aloom in India. They believe in safeguarding the teachings of Islam, while spreading the religion through preaching [20].
TTP has its own extremist version of this ideology, where it justifies the use of force and violence to enact Sahriah law within the country. It also demands Pakistani states disassociation from the coalition for war on terror [21].
 
Structure of the Organization  

Network-The organization has an estimated strength from 5,000 combat personnel to overall membership of 50,000 [22].
TTP is a conglomerate of various militant outfits and its ranks consist of:
 Pashtun,
 Arab,
 Afghan,
 Chechen,
 Uzbek and
 Punjabi militants.
 A consultative council of 40 senior Taliban gives guidance to the organization [23].
 The membership is also based on various tribal affiliations, leading to variable relations with local commanders [24].
Base-Tehrik-e Taliban is based in South Waziristan, while its chapters are established under local commanders [25]. The organization is believed to have created cross-sectional working groups with other terrorist groups throughout Pakistan. These groups consist of 10 15 members each and have assisted in expanding the operations of the outfit [26].
 

Financial Resources  

TTP is involved in:
 Drug trade,
 Kidnap for ransom,
 Extortion and
 Other criminal activities adopted for generating funds.
 Besides these the outfit has long and effective relationship with Al-Qaeda and Afghan Taliban, providing it with sufficient resources [27].
 

Status  

Proscribed-Aug25, 2008-Pakistani Government
The group has been proscribed by the Pakistani government on August 25, 2008.
Sep 01, 2010-FTO: The US State Department had put the outfit on its Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO) on September 01, 2010.
Jan 18, 2011-Britain proscribed TTP on January 18, 2011,
Canada on July 05, 2011 and on July 29, 2011 the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) put the organization on its international anti-terrorism sanctions list [28].
 

Recruitment tools & demographics  

The outfit recruits from:
 Tribal ranks,
 Religious seminaries and
 Draws its strength from foreign fighters belonging to Middle East and Central Asia [29].
 As mentioned earlier, it has also formed working groups with affiliated organizations and draws on their strength [30].
 

Ideology  

Tehrik-e Taliban endorses violence to implement Shariah law in Pakistan, while it also propagates armed struggle against the Pakistani security forces and coalition forces present in Afghanistan [31].
 

Areas of Operation   Main areas of operation-KPK, Tribal & Afghanistan
The Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan conducts operations throughout Pakistan with the assistance of its affiliates. Its influence is mainly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and tribal areas, while it also carries out activities in Afghanistan [32].
 
Linkages   The organization has linkages with local and international terrorist organizations including:
1) Al-Qaeda,
2) Taliban,
3) Lashkar-e Jhangvi (LeJ)
4) Jaish-e Muhammad (JeM)
5) Tehrik-e Nifaz-e Shariat-e Muhammadi (TNSM) and
6) Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) [33].
 
Tools   Print Media:

As per the available information TTP utilizes magazine publications in Urdu, English and Arabic language.
Magazines

[34]



1) Nawa-e Afghan Jehad [35]
2) Asarullah Urdu [36]
3) Ihya-e Khilafat [37]
4) Inspire [38]

 

    Audio / Video:
The outfit is also utilizing audio[39] /visual[40] tools to disseminate their agenda. These tools are meant towards gaining outreach to individuals who are less literate or are not in the habit of reading. The media content of the group is handled by Umar Media.
The audio/visual media contains:
 Speeches,
 Coverage of activities and
 Promotional songs.

Download videos:

Video 1

Video 2

Video 3

Video 4

Video 5

Social Media:
The organization is also very active on the social media, where it promotes its ideology and activities through twitter, Facebook and blogs.

[41]


Twitter:
https://twitter.com/TehreekeTaliban
http://twitmail.com/profile/AU_Urdu
http://twitmail.com/profile/AU_Urdu
https://twitter.com/AU_Urdu

Facebook:

https://www.facebook.com/jihadinpkistan
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Pakistani-taliban/195074333910776
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Al-Jehad/321542471211854
https://www.facebook.com/UmarMedia
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Nawai-Afghan-Jihad-Magazine/352668991436856
https://www.facebook.com/AU.Urdu
https://www.facebook.com/Ansarullah.Urdu


Blogs:
http://jihadepakistan.blogspot.com/
http://nawaiafghan.blogspot.com/
http://ihyaekhilafat.blogspot.com/

 
 

web site   There are various websites run by TTP, which are concerned with further disseminating their offline tools such as publications to promote their ideology.
The latest information regarding the outfits activities and messages from the leadership is also present on these websites:


http://nawaeafghan.weebly.com/16621585157516061746-15881605157515851746.html
http://203.211.136.155/~babislam/showthread.php?t=11255
http://ansaarullah.tk/
http://almalahemmedia.wordpress.com/ 

Service Delivery:

TTP and its affiliates have been known to establish a parallel justice system in their areas of influence, based on extremist interpretation of Islamic laws.
These courts apparently provide speedy justice and resultantly also assisting in attracting people to their cause. The most prominent example of this was seen in Swat, where Taliban established their courts [42].

 

Name Variations   The organization is also referred to as:
1) Pakistan Taliban,
2) Pakistani Taliban,
3) Student Movement of Pakistan,
4) Taliban Movement of Pakistan,
5) Tehreek-e Taliban Pakistan and
6) Tehrik-i Taliban Pakistan [43].
 
 

Who they are

TTP is a South Waziristan based conglomerate of various militant outfits and its ranks consist of:
 Pashtun,
 Arab,
 Afghan,
 Chechen,
 Uzbek and
 Punjabi militants.
 A consultative council of 40 senior Taliban gives guidance to the organization. The organization has an estimated strength from 5,000 combat personnel to overall membership of 50,000
[45].
Various tribal affiliations makeup for a considerable strength within the organization, however due to tribal frictions the relations with local commanders remains volatile
[46]. It has established chapters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and tribal areas, which are led by local commanders [47].
The organization is believed to have created cross-sectional working groups with other violent extremist organizations throughout Pakistan. These groups consist of 10 15 members each and have assisted in expanding the operations of the outfit
[48]. TTP has its own extremist version of Deobandi ideology, where it justifies the use of force and violence to enact Sahriah law within the country. It also demands Pakistani states disassociation from the coalition for war on terror [49].
TTP is involved in:
 Drug trade,
 Kidnap for ransom,
 Extortion and
 Other criminal activities adopted for generating funds.
 Besides these the outfit has long and effective relationship with Al-Qaeda and Afghan Taliban, providing it with sufficient resources
[50].
 The Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan conducts operations throughout Pakistan with the assistance of its affiliates. Its influence is mainly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and tribal areas, while it also carries out activities in Afghanistan
[51].
 The outfit is involved in attacks on civilian and military infrastructure and has also targeted leading political and public figures perceived to be an opposition to the group.
 Besides this, TTP is also involved in rising sectarian conflict within Pakistan
[52].

History

The catalyst believed for the formation of TTP was the July 2007 operation conducted at Lal Masjid (Red Mosque) Islamabad, aimed at clearing out the extremist militants from the mosque.
Dec 2007-The organization was formed under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud during December 2007. A total of 27 pro-Taliban groups were involved in establishment of the outfit. The primary focus of TTP is mainly for implementation of Shariah law in Pakistan and violent engagement with Pakistani security forces
[53]. Its various chapters however also carryout cross border activities in Afghanistan against coalition troops.
Aug 2009- After the death of Baitullah Mehsud in a drone strike during August 2009, there was reported tussle between Hakimullah Mehsud and Wali ur-Rehman Mehsud for the leadership. Eventually, Hakimullah was nominated as the leader of the outfit
[54].
The group is blamed for various high profile attacks in the urban centers of Pakistan:
1) These include assassination of former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in December 2007,
2) Suicide blast at Marriott Islamabad in September 2008,
3) Attack on police academy in Lahore during March 2009 and
4) Attack on Pakistan army headquarters in October 2009
[55].
The outfit has been involved in various peace negotiations with the Pakistani government which have mostly broken down
[56]. There are differences within the group based on tribal affiliations, operations within Pakistan and presence of foreign fighters. Resultantly the group has also been exposed to infighting among various chapters. The group has been proscribed by the Pakistani government on August 25, 2008. The US State Department had put the outfit on its Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO) on September 01, 2010. Britain proscribed TTP on January 18, 2011, Canada on July 05, 2011 and on July 29, 2011 the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) put the organization on its international anti-terrorism sanctions list.

Organization's Message

Tehrik-e Taliban endorses violence to implement Shariah law in Pakistan, while it also propagates armed struggle against the Pakistani security forces and coalition forces present in Afghanistan. TTP pledges allegiance to Mullah Omar as their supreme leader. The group also considers the democratic and judicial system in Pakistan being contrary to Islamic ideology, while benefiting only a certain class.

Target Audience

The organization uses a variety of tools to gain influence in communities mostly in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and even Sindh. As mentioned earlier they heavily rely on tribal loyalties and religious seminaries for recruits. The seminaries also provide TTP with the necessary supply of suicide bombers. In other areas they attempt to gain sympathies especially among the women and youth. They also utilize terror mechanisms such as decapitation of security personnel or silencing opposing voices through targeted killings, to spread fear among the community.

Tools

Umar Radio

Facebook page

[Tools 1]

 

[Tools 2]

Umar radio previous podcasts are available at website

[tools 3]

Twitter page

 

 

Online Tools:

Twitter:

Umer media is broadcast and print media of Tehrik e Taliban Pakistan which have facebook pages and blogs

Facebook Pages:

To Download complete details of tools being used by TTP
click here.

Splinter Groups

N/A

 

 

References:

Terik-e-Taliban Pakistan: An Attempt to Deconstruct the Umbrella Organization and the Reasons for its Growth in
Pakistans North-West. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS).

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October 01, 2013. Retrieved from:
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